MILITARY OPERATIONS IN PAPUA “EAT PLANTS FENCE

”Experience Under The Hold Military Will Not be Forgotten By The Papuans “
IntroductionThe military regime of Suharto’s New Order to make Papua a regional military power, especially the Army (AD). Such an impression is very pronounced because of military agencies and military leaders in the military command and staff ranch dominate politics and running of the government in Papua. AD grip on Papua grew stronger because of the dual function of ABRI and maketh Papua as a Military Operations Area (DOM). In the spirit of berdwifungsi, the main obsession of all the Indonesian military, especially in the ranks of the military command and the government of Papua Trikora ne destroy what it calls armed gangs OPM. Obsession destruction OPM was also motivated by economic and political kepetingan. Politically officials AD, as Commander, Danrem, and is also Chairman of the Trustees Dandim Golkar in the region. Economically, all the major companies in Papua categorized as national vital objects. This means that companies that are under the auspices of the military for security. To that end, companies have to deposit some money. In turn the head of every leader and member of the Armed Forces assumed that, all the people of Papua is a separatist and or OPM, unless the person can show he is not a separatist. Obsession that grew from the perspective see the movement demanding recognition of Papua’s political identity. Therefore to get rid of “ghost OPM”, the measures taken in Papua was to destroy OPM (Free Papua Movement) physical (killing) by holding an ongoing military operations (DOM) from year to year.
Dr. Benny Giyai a priest and intellectual Papua noted that the iron grip of military experience was a bitter experience that will never be forgotten by the people of Papua. Benny wrote that the whole experience was bitter, the Papuans are treated not as people, but only as an object, the obje
ct of military operations.

History of violence as an object that is always denied by Indonesia to this day. Opponents of the military or security forces in Papua had never felt a crime against anyone in Papua, since military operations which they have embarked, or arrests and the torture or murder in all its forms in Papua is only in order to perform the task as Homeland protection from undermining the organization known as OPM.

This article tries to expose the military operations conducted by Army that berpataka “Praja Ghupta Kra” (Knight Protective Society) in Papua. In view of the people of Papua, military instead of being protective, even being such a fence eating crops. ¬ Operating a military operation to bring physical and spiritual misery for the people of Papua. Papuan people’s views still persist to this day so as to encourage their independence demand due to low confidence in the government in Papua.

Military operations running continually seen as a political victory in the Armed Forces perform ¬ bargaining with actors other state actors in their policy. The dual function of ABRI makes other political actors ¬ actor lost control of the armed forces. It happened because of the strong military influence in local politics in both Papua and Papua legislature in the executive branch in Papua.

1. Armed Forces: The face of Indonesia in Papua

To date, Indonesia argument that the process of incorporation into Indonesia Papua is a “will and call history” of patriotism volunteers feel inadequate. What else argument that Papua had been part of Indonesia since the natural lie because there were similarities the square stone axes and the similarity of relief paintings on the walls of caves. More does not mean anymore, when Indonesia’s claim was based solely on mastery of the ancient kingdom of Papua as Srivijaya, Majapahit until the Sultan of Tidore. Claims Papua relies on the argument that Papua is a colony of Dutch-since 1828 thanks to the success of the Dutch established the fort Fort du Buis, Triton Bay, Kaimana ¬ automatically become parts of Indonesia, also did not help in convincing many Papuans that they are a legitimate part of the Republic of Indonesia.

All the arguments that seem bland because it comes from real experience Papuans themselves integrate with the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed August 17, 1945. More precisely, the Papuan people interact significantly with Indonesia state entities is through an international pejanjian signed on August 15, 1962 in New York, followed by a referendum seven years later. The referendum was called by Indonesia as an Act which is run by consensus among the 1022 people representing all Papuans were there at the time. Only after the Act in 1969 that integration with Indonesia to Papua spine of military rule.

The military operation to force berintegarasi Papua into Indonesia in fact pioneered starting in 1961 with the entry of Indonesian troops to Papua as the volunteers in order to infiltrate to control some parts of Papua from the Dutch and later the area was used to disrupt the Dutch rule over Papua. Since 1961, then, the Papuan people to know the real Indonesia thanks ABRI troops who infiltrated Papua. That is, the first face Indonesia in Papua lunge represented by the troops this infiltrator.

Infiltration phase is intended to establish guerrilla bases and prepare for the establishment of outposts invasion attempt Papua by Indonesia. In this phase, the company entered Approximately 10 military troops to Papua. The second phase was an open attack on several areas such as Biak, Fak-Fak, Sorong, Kaimana, and Merauke. The third phase is the consolidation of forces as a military force in Papua, Indonesia.

One of the military officers are Capt. Benny infiltrator Moerdani (later to become Menghankam / Commander from 1983 to 1988, Minister of Defense 1988 ¬ 1993) with a powerful 206 troops from Special Forces Battalion and Company II 530/Para of Kodam UB. This forces deployed in Operation Dragon Merauke with a password. Infiltration operation in Papua as a whole codenamed Operation Jayawijaya. After the New York Agreement was approved, Benny moved to Hollandia (Jayapura) while commanding an entire army infiltrator Indonesia in West Papua.

The whole army infiltrator is as required by the New York Agreement and then organized into a contingent Indonesia (Kotindo) as security forces UNTEA. Concentration of Indonesian troops was originally Merauke, Kaimana, Fafak, and shoves. All Indonesian troops were then divided into four datasemen, namely Datasemen A in Merauke, Datasemen in Kaimana, Detachment C in Fak-Fak, and Detachment D in Sorong.

Indonesian forces are then assigned to the United Nation Security Force (UNSF) which is the security forces UNTEA. However, all remain under the command of Commander Mandala. That is, organically Kotindo troops remain an integral part of the Armed Forces. Therefore, all organizational and administrative responsibilities remain the responsibility of Indonesia.

In such a position, the Armed Forces have two missions in Papua, a formal alai UNTEA completeness of the UNSF, while infomal is to continue Trikora command. Therefore, the Armed Forces in Kotindo, more concerned with informal task, which oversees UNTEA order not to harm Indonesia and pressing socio-political forces Papuans against Indonesia.

2. Kodam: Backbone Security Approach

In 1963, Men / Army Commander Gen. A. Yani Wisnumurti Operations issued orders to bring in troops from divisions in Java, Makassar, and the Moluccas to develop combat power and military command staff. XVII. Kodam fundamental duty is to uphold the authority of the Government of Indonesia, ensuring security and order and assist the civil administration in establishing West Irian. The infiltrator who joined in Kotindo is the core strength of the Armed Forces in Papua when the Military Command XVII / Tjendrawasih formed.

The truth is that originally named Kodam XVII Military Command XVII / New Guinea was formed through the Letter Men / Army Commander / No. Kpts 08/08/1962 ¬ 105 on August 17, 1962 or two days after the New York Agreement was signed. Since that time, Indonesia does not have the authority of government in Papua. Kodam This is only a shadow of the function of overseeing UNTEA and political movements of the Papuan people, especially the pro-independence Papuan. Brigadier General U. Rukmana the commander Kotindo doubles as the first military commander in Papua.

Kodam is then realized in real new January 12, 1963 close to the day of delivery to the government administration UNTEA to Papua from Indonesia. Kodam territorial command is then formed consisting of 3 Korem and 23 Kodim. Then the territorial command was amended on March 3, 1963 to 3 Kodim Korem and 8, 70 and 20 Kooterpa Puterpa. Commandos serves as his troops and at the same territorial control in the context of real social and political functions. In addition, it is also coupled with two infantry battalions. Kodam started functioning in real May 17, 1963, after UNTEA transfer administrative responsibility to Indonesia.

Kodam XVII / New Guinea on June 30, 1964 was renamed the Military Command XVII / Tjendrawasih with his banner Praja Vira Ghupta meaning Knight Protective Society. Since 1964, the core strength of Kodam XVII / Tjendrawasih continues to expand with the establishment of a new battalion ¬ battalion, the Battalion 751 / Tjendrawasih in Manokwari from Kodam VII / Diponegoro, Battalion 752 / Tjendrawasih in Sorong from Kodam VI / Siliwangi, and Battalion 753 / Tjendrawasih in Jayapura. Third Infantry Battalion was a renewal of the previous, ie. I 641/Tjendrawasih Battalion from Diponegoro and 642/Tjendrawasih II Battalion from Siliwangi. Into the second battalion has joined elements of Papua, which the guerrillas Cassowary / Trikora and former member of PVK (Papuan Vrywillingers Corps) after they were educated at Siliwangi and Diponegoro. Moderate amounts of whole pasukanABRI the early presence of these military command about 2,000 more soldiers.

The role of the military-especially AD ¬ becomes increasingly dominant in Papua during Indonesia’s military reorganization after the power switch from hand to hand Soeharto Soekarno. The dominance of the military in Papua is in line with the strengthening of the military in power in Indonesia. Minister of Defence / Commander Benny Moerdani also a member of the MPR in the 1988 session of the Assembly had declared the military in politics was by no means a political party. In the era of Benny Murdani became Minister of Defense / Armed Forces Military Command is a command role dominant in the area and at the same time the only military force that controls security and order conditions as well as socio-political conditions of the region. In carrying out this social function ¬ political, military active in mobilizing political power along with Golkar. Since people go to the polls Papua Indonesia in 1971 until the 1997 election, Golkar remains the dominant political party in Papua by the vote above 80%.

In line with that policy, then Kodam XVI Tjendarawasih combined with Kodam XV / Patimura be KodamXVII / Trikora the defense forces and political science major also in Papua. As the strength of security and socio-political point of heavy duty military in Papua is overcome and counteract disturbances kamtibmas domestic subversion. With emphasis such military duty, Kodam eventually become an institution controlled by the army.

Accordingly, a series of violence and human rights violations occur. Bad experience in the DOM, then stir Papuans bad experience during the initial process of integration and the Act. Bad experience it later appeared publicly to the surface in times of military rule in the rule retroactively when political reform occurred in 1998. In the reform era, in Papua growing courage to question all Indonesian rule in Papua, which is dominated by the military. Courage was becoming upset when General Wiranto declared in the month of August 1998 to apologize and revoke the status of Papua as a regional DOM.

With the historical background and political positions, the military in Papua feels and sees himself as the only institution that maintain the integrity of Indonesia in Papua. In turn, the military in Papua because they always act against any form of movement or opinions that questioned or protested circumstances considered unfair by the leaders of Papua. in turn, the Indonesian military in Papua is very easy to denounce all forms of protest as the Papuan separatist movement. When the cap separatist already addressed by the military in Papua to someone that person will be a victim in an instant. Both are victims of kidnapping, torture, and even murder. The violence lasted for years, with thousands of casualties. The victims and their families together with these young people and students as well educated Papuan leaders in the reform era began voicing the need for Indonesia to account for all the violence. To hold accountable ¬ answers, the discourse of human rights became the dominant discourse in Papua.

Kian menghujamnya military stranglehold on political and social life in Papua can not be separated from the economic potential of this area is so great. It was seen as PT Freeport began to invest in Papua. To protect PT Freeport, the military in Papua began to develop its influence in local politics in a more harsh. In addition, the military also increases its power by placing himself as the protector of the influx of thousands of immigrants and migrants from outside Papua. Everything is referred to by military officials as a national duty to safeguard the territorial integrity of Indonesia in Papua. The entire military lunge that brought wound in the hearts of these Papuans who want to be fixed by special autonomy status for Papua. Considering on the part of the Special Autonomy Law states that penyelengaran government and the implementation of development in Papua has not fully satisfy justice, meet the people’s welfare, law enforcement, and not fully respect human rights, especially the rights of Papuans.

3. Military Operations: Papuan People’s Suffering
To get attention, people often pro-independence armed movement launched sporadic. It was adopted because of the limited ability of community independence fighter due to the small number of weapons. In addition, because it is not easy to build a force field Papua large well organized. In addition to the armed movement, the general business community to demonstrate their self-independence still exist are kidnappings, ambushes action, raising the Morning Star flag, spread through the media propaganda leaflets, and mobilize demonstrations or rallies in remote areas. In addition, often also taken action across borders, especially into PNG.

Armed Forces launched Operation continually Sadar under military command, Brigadier General R. Kartidjo to crush the insurgents. Operation Aware is not only aims to break the resistance that occurs in Manokwari, but also to assert power over the whole territory Kodam XVII Papua. The principal tasks is to conduct demolition operations against gangs that move around Manokwari and Kebar once, minimum catch Ferry Awom and Julianus Wanma, either dead or alive before the date of August 17, 1965. This operation since August 10 waged intensively and continuously into the villages into resistance bases. In pursuit operations against the insurgents, 36 local residents were killed.

In line with this pursuit operation, Operation Aware developed throughout West Irian on August 25, 1965. This time, Operation Aware directly led by the military commander. Under the command of this operation, the region is then divided into 4 sectors. Sector I is the area that covers the Manokwari and its surrounding outposts operation. For this region, and territorial intelligence operations waged in support of the physical operation (combat). In other sectors that have not addressed any physical resistance, just launched and territorial intelligence operations in order to prevent widespread opposition followers.

This operation was followed by a new Commander, namely Brigadier R. Bintoro. During the year 1966-1967 increasingly massive military combat operations to deal with insurgent groups that grew from Manokwari Arfak under the direction and Lodewijk Mandatjan Ferry Awom and also in the area around Jayapura and Merauke. This time the operation name was Operation Baratayudha by bringing in troops from Battalion 314 / Siliwangi with 2 companies and 2 companies 700/RIT Yon Yon 935/Brimob. Also in this operation also included 2 Ton Marines / Navy, 1 Ton Storm Trooper and 1 Special Forces team. Combat forces are also reinforced with 2 Bomber aircraft B-26 and 1 and 1 Aircraft Dakota Battleship. Baratayudha operation aimed at destroying the opposition and prepare for winning PEPERA. These operations are combat operations, assisted by intelligence and territorial prepared in three phases, the last phase is 1968. The third phase, is intended for the preparation of consolidated Pepera win.

Operating Baratayudha many casualties makes the insurgents split into small pieces and downs. To intensify the victory in the Act, small groups are then pursued constantly. The core of the troops of the Special Forces are pursuing. In line with this, offorce show of force accompanied by intelligence operations and territorial waged in a small and weakened resistance to win the psychological situation. Throughout 1967, the operation was successful shot dead 73 people and arrested 60 people by seizing 39 weapons. The person who surrendered 3539. Operation is thrilling Barathayuda many Papuans, because they do not think Indonesia will open a lot of waging war brings physical and psychological suffering in the face of protest.

When Gen. Sarwo Edi Regional Commander, deployed a new operation that is operating Authority with the main task is to win the Act to Indonesia. The main duties of this operation is to destroy the insurgency, secure a winning effort to grow and maintain the Act and the authority of the government. For that purpose, Kodam synchronize combat operations, intelligence, and territorial. In line with this, the Commander ordered in any Kodim prepared fighting force to be used if needed.
Within the framework of winning the Act, under the leadership of Mayor Opsus Murtopo engaged in intelligence and socio-economically dominant in territorial operations for fundraising. Within the framework of Operation Authority, winning the Act to the Military Command of Den Dipiad conjunct intelligence and the intelligence of the team Karsa Yudha / Special Forces. To win that Act, intimidation and violence have forced some people choose to become Indonesia. Overall, this operation involved the 6220 Indonesian troops.

Operation Victory Act is divided into four phases. The first phase is to destroy the insurgency and simultaneously expand the distribution of military forces to areas that have been mastered. Moreover, in every Puterpa prepared 1 infantry squads to perform the operation territorial. The second phase is to ensure that in areas of the Bird’s Head Act was won by Indonesia. For this, all elements of the Armed Forces were engaged to eliminate insurgents. The third and fourth phase is to ensure victory on the day of his and secure results. Even though the phases it has been prepared, it was a way of ensuring the Act could be won by Indonesia does not run smoothly. In areas Erambo (Merauke), Dubu / Ubrub (near the border), Enaratoli and Wahgete (Paniai) being rejected by the local community. The representatives of government and military elements that exist in the area opposed by residents.

In Enarotali, greater resistance by waging an armed movement and blatantly refused to join Indonesia, led by AR Wamafma, Senen Mote, Mote Maphia, and Thomas Douw. Resistance is also supported by some Papuan police siding with the insurgents. To stop this movement, Commander Sarwo Edi ‘ordered to destroy the resistance. To that end, Kopashanda forces and troops from Company 3, Battalion 724/Hasanuddin Enarotali parachuted in to help troops in Kodim 1705/Nabire. This forces the operations supported by Dipiad (Executive Intelligence Dings AD) and the Task Force are equipped aircraft Air Force B 26, Dakota, and Hercules. Troops Battalion 724/Hasanuddin then launched an operation moves to different areas around the Paniai. The operation, led by the Mayor and Mayor Mochtar Jahja Sitompul is not easily forgotten by the people in Paniai as military operations acting violently and blindly. Suspected there are about 634 people were killed during the operation.

The insurgency before the Act was also broken in the Pyramid, Wamena. Two people were killed by members of the Armed Forces. Forces in the event of the Pyramid is launching an intelligence operation to find the culprit and territorial. Troops of Task Force 3/Hasanuddin deployed to control the villages and find the perpetrator.

Incessant military operations commanded by Commander Sarwo Edi is inseparable from its function as the Chairman of the Regional Implementation Project. In accordance with the Ministry of Home Affairs letter No.. 30/1969, military commander responsible for the control, mobilization, and coordination of activities of all local government officials, civil, and private and military in Papua. In other words, military commander in Papua is the highest authority in running the government and are solely responsible for winning the Act. In his position as Chairman of the Project, launched military commander improvement efforts in all areas of combat operations to crush the resistance, territorial operations for raising the conditions for the award of the Act and intensify intelligence operations to break the remnants of the resistance by the people. In addition, the security operations of vital objects and places Pepera Council session.

Along with the victory of Indonesia in the Act, the Armed Forces do anyway ¬ function of socio-political function. For that, Kodam launched replacement program officials and district-dinar dinar seen questionable loyalty to Indonesia. Along with this, the membership level I and II perform rearrangements by inserting member, a member of the Armed Forces or the chairman of the board. In this context, military forces also sealed in the villages to monitor people’s lives directly. In addition, it also launched civilisasi and health projects in collaboration with missionaries and missionaries who have been there. In the economic sphere, Kodam also participated undertake economic activities by controlling the flow and price of goods. All of this activity is referred to as the military mission civic activities in Papua.

After winning the Act, January 29, 1970 appointed Brig Acub Zainal shook Pangdam endrawasih Tj. In the hands of this new Pandam, Kodam organization into 3 Korem, 9 Kodim, and 3 Battalion. Battalion 751 / Tjendrawasih in Arfai, Manokwari from Diponegoro military command with the status of long-term task. Battalion 752/Tjendrawasih in Sorong from Siliwangi Military Command and Battalion 753/Tjendrawasih in Ifar Mount, Jayapura from UB plus native Papuan soldiers. Third Battalion was developed into an organic force Kodam Tjendrawasih. While the forces of unity ¬ ABRI others from outside Papua experiencing rotational assignment. Troops old home and replaced with fresh troops from the unity of the same origin. Reorganization is also in line with the reorganization Kopkamtibda in Irian Jaya. All this prepared to welcome the election of 1971.

1971 election is the first election in Indonesia under Suharto’s New Order regime. This election was also the first election for Papuans in the Indonesian power. In preparing for the 1971 elections, the military command also faced resistance, particularly in the North and West Biak and Manokwari in the bird’s head. To stop the insurgency launched military operations. Password operation was Operation Pamungkas territorial approach to operations assisted combat and intelligence. Implementing Operations are assisted Biak Kodim combat troops from Battalion 753 and 752/Tjendrawasih and Dipiad. Operations in Biak Biak was led by Major RA Dandim Hendrik and Major Puspito also Commander Yon 753.

In July 1971, also launched Operation Military Command Pamungkas in Manokwari to pursue Awom Ferri who have not given up. The operation was led by Danyongab 3/Merdeka Task Force, Major Ahmad. Was replaced by Lt. Col. S. Mardjan. In this operation involved troops from Task 3/.merdeka and 1 platoon of Battalion 751 and 1 platoon of 753. Battalion-duty battalion chasing insurgents throughout the day for months, afternoon, and night. In this pursuit Sahala Rajaguguk Captain Ferry Awom persuaded to give up to 400 members.

Massive military operation in 1971, instead of making anti-Indonesia sentiment receded, instead developing resistance to various cities in the form of attacks on military outposts and government. Seeing strong resistance, military command in Papua increasingly strengthened his power by shutting down, Papua for media. The atmosphere of fear is rampant throughout Papua. During the 1971 election before and after no one dared to question the people in Papua injustice or military actions that hurt them.

The atmosphere of fear that arises from the actions of the Indonesian military were always launched a massive military offensive against the areas identified as the basis of society against the government of Indonesia. In the attack, the Armed Forces often involves a large army, assisted by Bronco bomber aircraft and helicopter gunships. Massive attack was not just chasing people who tried to attack military outposts, but often casualties of the villagers who were not involved in the attack on military outposts.

The number of deaths in the late 1970s was also due to the attitude of the Indonesian military itself never clearly position the community as a movement against the government of Indonesia’s independence. They are seen as a criminal movement called the Movement Vandals Liar (GPL) or the Security Pengacau Movement (GPK). In this way, all the lives lost from the Papuan people easily claimed by the military as a member of the security penganggu.

Ahead of 1977 elections resistance waged again, by people in Papua, especially in the area Kelila, Kobagma, Bokondini, Honor, Ilaga, Pyramids, Jayawijaya. Resistance is triggered by the placement of military units in almost all areas of Papua. Military operations to break resistance ahead of the 1977 elections and the 1978 General Session improved both quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, the resistance also broken in Enarotali, Biak and Timika and along the border with PNG era is considered by the Papuans as the beginning of an era of military operations area status for Papua applied. Tjendrawasih Commander Brigadier time held by Imam Munandar.

In Jayawijaya, especially in the area around Tiom and Kwiyawage which is Baliem valleys also conducted a military operation to stop the opposition and prepare for 1977 elections. The operation was launched in April and June. Resistance Ndani people in this area preceded by feelings of dislike Tribes Indonesia Ndani the policy that forced them to change their clothes. About 15,000 people gathered to protest. Resistance was initiated by Operation Koteka launched for civilizing the people in that area. In Tiom about 4,000 people against the government by attacking the post in that area. Then the area is deployed with Special Forces commandos dropped from a helicopter. Moreover, the people who tried to escape to the forests bombarded shots from the air.

In the area of ​​PT Freeport in Timika in July 1977 also turmoil. locals were allegedly driven by a society that refuses Indonesian government also launched an attack against pips pips and Freeport facilities for feeling disappointed by the presence of the company. ABRI reply actions with the firing of the air using a plane Bronco. After that, the various rows of villages around Agimuga diterjukan infantry Battalion 753/Tjendrawasih to chase people and burning villages. The implications of this violence Organizing Elections 1977 in several villages in this mountainous area had to be postponed.
Robin Osborne noted military operations in the years 1977-1978 was the worst military operations. In any pursuit operations against the pro-independence Papuan society, deployed large numbers of troops in the core of the unity of the army’s Special Forces and other troops. In the area south of Jayapura adjacent to the border region known as the headquarters of the pro-independence Papuan soldiers diterjukan 10,000 people after the area was bombarded from the air by two planes Bronco. In this attack, an estimated 1605 people and the pro-independence Papuan residents in the region were killed. years of military operations it is always remembered by the old people and tell their children and grandchildren in the area to this day, as the bitter reality of their lives.

During the year 1977-1978, the Indonesian Ambassador to PNG estimated 1,800 people were deployed troops operating in the forests to the chase and 3,000 people were in Jayapura to standby at any time. Realizing that the military operation has created fear and claimed many lives unnecessarily, when the armed forces commander, Gen. M. Joseph, announced it would reduce military operations in Papua to introduce a new policy known as Operation Smile policy. In Operation Smile is otherwise Indonesia will launch a massive operation, as people begin to see small Papuan independence and not harmful. Forces only, will be launched in the border patrol and security duties regularly.

The turmoil erupt again in the 1980′s, especially around 1984. In the 1980′s military command has been declared in the ranks Kotama AD. Kodam a leader in the area for the whole range of command. Armed Forces Commander in the reorganization of the organization is directly under the Commander of the Armed Forces. Accordingly, the Commander of the Armed Forces also have a direct command to the other AD Kotama, namely Kostrad and Kopassus. Therefore, in this era military operations involving troops from Kostrad and Kapassus with direct orders from the Commander of the Armed Forces, and Army just facilitate. This fact became known as army troops (under the control of the operation). In this era, Papua also closed to the media so much the military operation launched by unknown outsiders. Robin Osborne called this situation a secret war in Papua, Indonesia.

In the early 1980s, the Kopkamtib issued an analysis that pro-independence forces have shrunk Society and scattered into small groups with very limited weapons. Nevertheless, Laksusda Irian Jaya was then also see movement independence society groups became active again after receiving a severe blow during the year 1977-1978. Community-independence movement was active along the border with PNG. Between March and June 1984, troops from Kopasandha (Kopassus) began infiltrating into areas around the border.

Actions red beret troops is by arresting anyone suspected. Osborne noted troop movements are very scary people around the border because of the bad treatment of the population. As a result, hundreds of people fled the area for fear of PNG. Evacuation to PNG in 1984 is becoming a lot when Muyu tribe in Mindiptana, Woropko, and Merauke also go into PNG. Displacement Muyu tribe is triggered by the presence of military forces, the Kopassus intelligence in the area for community members adinya independence after the attack happened in the village post ABRI Kanggewot and Kakuna 11-12 April 1984. Movement Muyu tribe is then also followed by residents of other areas, from Jayapura, Wamena, Sorong, Mimika (Amungme), Manokwari and Fak-Fak. The entire Papuan refugees coming into PNG is estimated at 10,000 people. While Japheth Kambai record of the refugees were only about 7,500 made it into the PNG, and 1,900 people remain silent in the woods around the border. The entire refugee camp is located in East Aswin and Western Province, PNG.

PNG refugee movement to factors other than military operations in the border areas, also caused by several interrelated factors, namely the number of intelligence operations, and the inclusion of arcs massive transmigration to Papua, especially around the border area. Transmigration, which also entered military families and military retirees increasingly making people scared and feel deprived of their land. The retired military who participated in transmigration as well as a military command in overseeing Intel region. This transmigration areas like Arso and Koya or in some areas in Merauke also serve as a buffer zone for Indigenous independence and facilitate military to patrol the area.

Evacuation to PNG in 1983-1984, was also triggered by a number of arrests occurred in the cities of Papua, especially Jayapura by Kopasandha intelligence. They arrested 20 people from Uncen and governorate officials Irian Jaya. One of them is Arnold Ap, who served as Head of Museum Anthropology Uncen. The arrest is cause unrest in Jayapura. As a result, many of the students Uncen and local government officials in the run to PNG. Even in Jakarta, three best friends Ap Amol who protested the arrest and murder of Arnold by Kapassus to the House of Representatives was forced to leave Jakarta.

After the exodus to PNG in 1984, the pro-independence resistance movement of people actually receding. However, the Armed Forces are increasingly feeling the power of Papua can not leave cars-cars violence to show their dominance. Stigma OPM exploited in such a way to paralyze anyone deemed against Indonesia. Violence is often also used every election to win Golkar in Papua.

Military operations after 1984 to run more massive, but violence in the operation was not known to the public outside of Papua because the mass media is prohibited preach. Kemasifan operation was supported by the Armed Forces who make policy Battalion as a combat core strength with additional troops from Jakarta or Makassar and Maluku are in-BKO her to kodam. In the 1984′s, kodam. pick 6 Infantry Battalion, 3rd Infantry Battalion in Papua and Maluku 3 as a result of the merger kodam. Of 3 Battalion in Maluku, which is the Airborne Infantry Battalion 733 in Ambon qualified para. Battalion of Maluku alternately assigned to perform the operation, while the Papua Infantry Battalion in operations during the year under the control of the military base.

Papua as an area of ​​operations, intelligence units and staffs kodam a big role to destroy the pro-independence movement called Community. Therefore, the role of intelligence and counterintelligence operations is always active sepajang year. The intelligence and military base kodam recruited from members of combat units that have intelligence and instinct then trained 3 to 10 days before being deployed to collect information. In addition, members of the intelligence training while serving with the combat intelligence coming from Kopassus.

Operations in this period was Operation Crow I (1985-1986) led by Commander Major General H. Simanjuntak. In this operation, the operating forces are divided into sectors on the border A, B and C in the middle of a bird’s head with a command Korem respectively. Danrem was commander of sector operations. Kodim became the commander of the Dansubsektor subsector. Operation territorial pressure point is supported by intelligence and combat operations and kamtibmas. Al sector covers an area Kodim 1701/Jayapura, namely Membramo, Arso, Wares. Senggi, Kemtuk and Demta. Troops were deployed in the area is 733 Battalion / BS, a company of Battalion 751, 9 teams intelligence, territorial local authorities and assisted by 2 SSK Wanra. While A2 covers an area Kodim 1702/Wamena the troop strength of the first squad Battalion 751, 2 Kilipur-4/Diponegro platoon, 2nd platoon Senzipur 10 local and territorial forces along with two SST Wanra / guards. A3 is the area Kodim 1707/Merauke the main target was the village Mendiptana and Waropko. Ditedunkan troops in this area is 1 company Infantry platoon 751.1 Zipur 4/Diponegoro, I platoons Denzipur 10, and territorial officials, assisted by 2 SST Wanra / guards.

Operating area covers an area of ​​sector B is Korem 173/PVB, with operations in Nabire hot spot. The main target is Enarotali and Kebo, Ilaga. This operation aims to hunt down pro-independence leader Society, Daniel Kogoya, Tadius Yogi, and Simon Kogoya. Troops were deployed to this area is 753.1 Infantry platoon 1 platoon Zipur 4/Dip and local Apter and assisted by two guards SST / Wanra. Sector C is the area of ​​Fak-Fak with operations focused in the area of ​​C3, which is a complex area Tembagapura, Agimuga, and Timika. Community leaders who want to pursue independence in the mining area of ​​PT Freeport is Vicktus Wangmang by deploying troops from Battalion 752 with a power of 2 companies assisted Apter and 2 SST hansip / Wanra. In Operation Crow I was, Kodam record 14 people suspected of pro-independence people had been killed and eight people were arrested with two weapons seized.

Entering the 1986 operations continued Commander Maj. Setiana password-Operation Crow II (1986-1987) with the principal task of the destruction of GPK. Operating pressure point is territorial and intelligence operations to separate GPK detection of people and the loyalty of the people against the government. Intelligence operations do fundraising in order to increase the loyalty of the people. Combat operations continue to be implemented by deploying patrols to catch and destroy. The operation was launched to keep dividing the area of ​​operations into 3 sectors. The forces involved in Operation Crow II is an organic whole combat troops and territorial Kodam VIII / Trikora. As well as the army troops of Task Force Yonif321/Kostrad, 6 Tim Intelpur Kostrad, I Company Yonzipur / Dip, 1st Battalion Company Zipur / UB, units of the Navy and Air Force as well as Penerbad. During this operation, the military reported 21 people had been killed, five captured and surrendered 12 people seized 13 weapons.

When the Regional Commander Maj. Wismoyo Arismunandar Trikora held operation with Operation password Cassowary 01 (1987-1988), the June 1987 to May 1988 with the main task of destroying GPK physically, especially around the border area. In addition, the operation is also emphasized in Jayapura, Paniai, Fak-Fak and Biak. Estimated time military force independence Society only 64 222 people with mixed weapons. However, the operation was held in 3 sectors with Danrem remain as commander. sector. For the sub-region that includes the border at Al Jayapura district deployed 321 troops from Infantry Battalion Task Force / Army Strategic Reserve Command, Task Force Patimura II, 2nd platoon, Battalion 751, Battalion 752 teams, Special Forces team of analysts, team Intelpur Kostrad, Intel Laksusda Task Force, a platoon Kizipur 4/Diponegoro , I assisted the company Zipur 5/Brawijaya 4 SSK Wanra as TBO. As for Sub A2, Wamena deployed 1 Ton Yon 751, 1 Ton Zipur 5/Brawijaya, 1 team Intelpur Kostrad, 1 Ton Plus 642/Tanjungpura Task Force and assisted. SST Wanra. While in the sector that is deployed troops Merauke 1 Ton Battalion 751, and 1 Ton Zipur 5/Brawijaya, Intel Laksusda Task Force and Tim Intelpur Kostrad and 2 SST Wanra.

In the area of ​​operation of sub-Bl, Nabire goal is Enarotali and Sugapa, to deploy troops from Battalion 753, Intel Laksusda, Kizipur 4/Diponegoro, platoon Intelrem 173, Ru Marines, 1st Platoon Kopaskhas AU, I Kodim Special Teams Nabire and 2 SSK Wanra. Targeted villages are Kampung Tagitakaida, Seruai, Kampung Swaipak, Ampobukar, Supiori and Swainober, West Biak. In addition, in the village Hitadipa, District Komopa, Sing District, Village Sapolinik, District Sinak and Lereh, Nabire. So. The village also Tamakuni, Waropen. Community leaders pursued independence in this area is Tadius Yogi and Simon Kogoya. Meanwhile in sector C, concentrated troops for combat patrol and guard the area of ​​PT Freeport and Sub Jila Agimuga and hometown. The troops were deployed from a company of Battalion 752, Battalion 753 one. team, Ton Intelrem 171, Task Force assisted the Intel Laksusda Wanra SSK. All the troops in the to-BKO Kodim 1706/Fak-fak.

The operation was followed by Operation Cassowary 02 (1988-1989). Operations emphasized along the border with PNG with pressure point operation territorial intelligence and combat and kamtibmas. Territorial operations are directed to form a guided village so that the people in favor of the military. Forces on duty and operating sectors with Operation Cassowary 01. Kelly Kwalik emerged as a leader in the area Agimuka OPM and Tembagapura in the Operation Cassowary 02′s. Maj. Abinowo after replacing the Wismoyo Arismunandar mengelar Operation Eagles 01 (1989-1990) and Operation Eagles 02 (1990-1991). Operations remain, devoted to the destruction of the pro-independence People along the border with PNG. This type of surgery is teritoril, clan combat intelligence in an integrated and simultaneous. Territorial operation directed to the formation of a guided village with the aim of separating the people from the GPK. Meanwhile, intelligence operations intended to identify and neutralize penganihnya GPK movement. Meanwhile, waging combat operations patrol, pursuit, and destruction. The forces involved in this operation is organic troops plus Kodam VIII Battalion 621 / Tanjungpura, Battalion 43 1 / UB, (replaced Battalion 3 1 O / Siliwangi), 1 team Intelpur Kostrad, XX Impact Task Forces, Task Force 3 Heli Air Puma, 1 Cassa AL, and 32 police, and 6 SSK Wanra. In this period, Thomas Wangari waving Benders western Melanesia in Jayapura.

Entering 1990, the pro-independence forces Society estimated 69 215 people with mixed weapons. Concentration is movement along the border and some scattered in Jayapura, Biak, Yapen-Waropen, Fak-Fak, Merauke. In this period, the military has split four groups GPK, the political, the forests, the people support, and clandestine within the Government I and II, college, and high school. Forces supporting this operation is organic troops Kodam added 32 Koramil vulnerable, namely Task Force 732 Battalion from Maluku, Task Ki. Denzipur 10, 1 Ki. Yon 751, 752, 753, Task Force Intel, plus non-organic troops, the Battalion Task Force 621, 431, 310, team Intelpur Kostrad, Den Forces, and Air Task Force. In 1990 this, the core of the military intelligence forces Kopassus in Papua to increase. The arrests were accompanied by the killing of suspected pro-independence People often occur in various places.

The operation of this type of unfolding as a series of killings of the villagers in the village Wea, Tembagapura in October to December 1995. In this action, the troops of the 752 Infantry Battalion opened fire indiscriminately on people who are in ho-home. Military action was preceded by a demonstration a few months earlier by raising the Morning Star flag. In this incident, 11 people were killed and Bebeberapa others were arrested and subsequently imprisoned, in containers owned by PT Freeport. Some of the people in the villages were also subjected to torture. The same violence also occurred in Mapenduma, Wamena regency Jayawijaya when Kopassus troops tried to free people who were taken hostage by a group of Judas Kogoya and Kelly Kwalik.

Military operations in order to hunt down the people back independence occurred in 2003 precisely between April to June and then continued to survive until October in Wamena. In pursuit operations in 2003 is deployed troops from Kopassus and Kostrad in the BKO to Korem 171/Jayapura. The military operation was initiated by the piercing arsenal in Wamena District Military Command 1702 by a group of armed men early hours of the date 4 April 2003. In order to pursue the operation that bersejata to the villages around the city in Wamena launched. The chase even to Kwiyawage area. Those arrested in the nearby town of Wamena Kodim and then suffered incredible torture. In the villages through which this occurs a series of military forces of violence against the population. However, remarkable acts of violence do occur in Kwiyawage military forces. The villages are thought of nearly 7,000 people was showered with gunfire and houses burned. Thousands of people who were arrested have been tortured and some were killed.

The most startling military operations after the DOM revoked Kopassus actions in Papua in 2001, which killed Theis H. Eluay in Jayapura. The killing came after Theis invited to the Kopassus headquarters in Hamadi, Jayapura. His body was then dumped in the ravine road verges in the Koya. To this day, the murder Theis has not revealed who had ordered it. What is clear, a Lieutenant Colonel and a major Kapassus convicted by the High Military Makamah III Surabaya as a focal point responsibilities. Theis method of murder is not a new method in Papua. Hundreds of people in Papua were killed that way, both in villages and in cities across Papua.

Actually when entering an era of political reform in Indonesia in 1998, pro-independence People no longer politically significant because it does not have sufficient firepower. In fact, its members divided and many are related to the TNI. Thus when served Menkopolkam, SBY said Public independence is not a serious threat. However, violence by the TNI in Papua has never subsided. Exposed to a series of military operations over if listened to in official literature Indonesia there was an impression that the operation runs smoothly without blemish. The entire operation was conducted solely to break the resistance movement or movement Vandals Vandals Liar Security. However, many witnesses in Papua declared the entire operation was a lot of fatalities fell from ordinary people in the villages as well as dozens of educated Papuans jailed. When the political situation changed, a series of military operations in Papua, was sued by the Papuan people because they recorded it as a violation of their human rights. It turns out that there is no military operation that broke up murdered, tortured, raped and eliminated or not simply enemies of the state, but hundreds of villagers whose land is being targeted military operation. Between the years 1963-1969 the victims of the Papuans by military operations citing Osborne predicted by Hasting totaling 2,000 to 3,000 people. While Eliaser Bonay former governor of Papua in 1981 once declared victims range from 30,000 j iwa. January Warinussy Executive Director LP3BH Manokwari estimate the number of victims of almost 100,000 people since the Act until now. However, a moderate number of victims written by Agus Sumule when formulating the need for a Human Rights Court and the Truth. and Reconciliation secured its formation in the Special Autonomy Law for Papua. Sumule detailing the number of victims were between the years 1969-1997 in Paniai 614 people were killed. Missing 13 people and raped 80 people (1980-1995). In 1979 Kelila (Jayawijaya) 201 killed, and 1977 in Asologaiman, 126 were killed, and 148 people were killed Wasi. The number of victims of killings by police in a series of military operations that have not been clearly identified to date. Nevertheless, the problem of serious human rights have occurred in Papua. Addressing the issue of human rights seriously, when the dawn of 2000 broke, President Abdurrahman Wahid, who at that time was in Jayapura to rename the province of Irian Jaya to Papua. Along with the name change, the president also allow raising the Morning Star flag and asked for military use peaceful means and leaving cars-cars in addressing the problem of violence in Papua. A year later, the Special Autonomy status approved by President Megawati to Papua through Law no. 21/2001.

The road began to open dialogue as a wave of relentless protests in Papua sepajang 1998. The wave was initiated by the students in Jayapura and later spread to almost all the cities in Papua. The point he said occurred in Biak, in July 1999. Thousands of people demonstrated and raised the Morning Star flag in the port of Biak. The demonstration later also spread to other cities in Papua, as Manokwari, Wamena, Merauke, Timika and Jayapura. Unfortunately in many demonstrations that followed the raising of the Morning Star flag was, again, the security forces acted rudely. Throughout 2000, the demonstrations demanding justice by raising the Morning Star flag also experienced violence by the security forces. During the year 1999-2000, dozens of people were shot dead by police.

by Telius yikwa

http://www.elsam.or.id;
Widjojo, muridhan s. Of 2005. “Separatism human rights-separatism: sklus violence in Papua, Indonesia” in the journal Human rights Dignitas, vol III / no.1 in

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